Wild Western Women: Calamity Jane

Captain Egan was wounded and had fallen off his horse. It was on Goose Creek, Wyoming, where the town of Sheridan is now located. Army), back to another shack, to two more shacks, and a hotel in Iowa before finally settling down in the DeSmet, South Dakota, and relative prosperity.  Charles’ daughter, Laura Ingalls Wilder, wrote of this family’s adventures in the West in her Little House series of books.

As mawkish, melodramatic, and heroic as this is, it is untrue.  Her direct report, Buffalo Bill, recalled:

frontier menfolk, and keeping up the grueling pace of simply living and putting food on the table. 

Pop culture imagery of Calamity Jane has run the gamut from the grungy to the glamorous.  The German photographic artist, Ellen Von Unwerth, has revisited Jane’s re-imagined legend

The lies inherent in this tall tale would have been relatively harmless but for the fact years later a woman named Jean “Hickok” Burkhardt McCormick (married three times) surfaced to grubstake

place to which Jane would retreat after her father’s death).  Entering the southeast corner of Idaho, the Oregon Trail split at Soda Springs, Idaho; the southerly path connected to California and the northerly fork snaked into the Oregon Territory.  Blackfoot, Idaho, lies directly on the northerly route the Cannarys would have taken to reach Virginia City, Montana.  And for the largely illiterate and geographically challenged Calamity Jane this would be but the first in a long string of confusions, exaggerations, and lies (some of her own devising) that would color her history even during her own life time. 

Ironically, in a variation of a confirmed case of heroism (reported by Buffalo Bill, again as hearsay), earlier that year she had saved Jack McCall’s life.  A stage traveling from Deadwood to Wild Birch was beset by Indians.  The stage driver, Jack McCall, was shot in the chest with an arrow.  The six passengers, all men, were cowed; Jane, spotting the runaway coach, raced alongside, jumped aboard, got the team under control and brought the stage in safely.  So Jane had saved the life of the man who would murder her friend. As a backup, the local Madam, Dora DuFran,  also gave Jane a steady place in her brothel to bed miners when she needed.

Jane Cannary was a drunk and had been for some few years (starting almost from the time she arrived to prostitute in Wyoming).  Her drunken antics in Fort Laramie just months earlier may have led to her embarrassing desire to put some distance between her and that place. [The real truth of this tale is the stagecoach driver's name was John Slaughter, not McCall, and he was killed by a Native arrow, not merely wounded.  Jane did pilot the stage to safety as reported, however, so that part is true].

Charlotte Cannary’s place of death seems to be misreported, however.  Most sources (including Calamity Jane in her own words) record her mother’s demise in Blackfoot, Montana (a settlement in northwestern Montana about 40 miles from the Canadian border, and several hundred miles north of Virginia City).  This is logistically absurd – there would be no reasonable trail for the Cannarys to follow from Missouri taking them all the way north to the U.S./Canadian border, only then to drop south to Virginia City, Montana.

She made her way up to Montana, in 1882.  By then she was looking for stability. To keep from contracting the French Pox from a gay girl, the British sport used a “French Letter” (the condom).

money by claiming relation to Hickok as her father.  She used Jane’s drunken domestic fantasy to legitimize her connection to the Hickok name (still a money-maker today), sweetening the lucrative potential by subverting Jane’s assertion she’d had a child with Hickok.  This woman was either deluded or a con artist.  She managed to wrangle an “old age” pension from the United States Government (although Hickok had served in the Army in the Civil War, this woman neither deserved nor was entitled to anything based on his service record) in 1941.  The U.S. I lifted him onto my horse in front of me and succeeded in getting him safely to the Fort. Jane recorded, again in her 1896 autobiography, her wild tale of the name’s origin:

Calamity Jane was a hurricane of activity, a whirlwind of trouble and mischief, and a sad woman.  But insofar as iconic women or great characters go, one would have to look very long and hard to find one as engaging as Martha Jane Cannary, the disastrously fascinating Calamity Jane.

***

Jane Says . This is another tall tale.  If Jane had any hand in McCall’s capture, it would have been as a tracker; she never confronted him herself, although he was taken into custody the same day of Hickok’s funeral.  In an ad hoc miner’s court, McCall claimed self-defense, and the jury found him “not guilty”.  He quickly left the area, lucky to have survived.  The findings were considered outrageous by the national press, and because his case had been heard in Deadwood (in Dakota Indian Territory) it was held up as not binding.  He was caught again by a Federal marshal on August 29, 1876, and retried in proper U.S. Government simply let the issue pass.

At the terminus of her July 1876 trip to Deadwood, Jane decided to stay. She spent the next two weeks in the fort’s infirmary recuperating.

The life of the early Western settlers was drudge and toil compared to the relatively easy living of the East.

Jane seemed very much a woman on her own by this time.   In 1900 an unverifiable story claimed a newspaper editor discovered an ill Calamity Jane in a brothel (unknown where or why she was there – certainly no one sought her out as a prostitute).  He allegedly cared for her until she recovered from whatever ailed her (in all likelihood, if this story is true, a gonorrhea recurrence).  She went on to perform, in 1901, at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York.  She sold copies of her pamphlet autobiography (written in 1896) there for extra money.  Her heavy drinking and public disturbances led to her arrest; Buffalo Bill had to loan her money to get home from the East.  [Buffalo Bill's sardonic take on this event led him to quip later, "I expect she was no more tired of Buffalo than the Buffalo police were of her, for her sorrows seemed to need a good deal of drowning."]

[Part of the legend of Calamity Jane (as reported by her friend William "Buffalo Bill" Cody) claimed she and her father had been separated during an Indian attack in which Robert died.  Cody said she was ten years old when this happened (she would have been 15, not 10).  He also claimed the Cannarys had come to Utah from Virginia City, Nevada (also incorrect).  Finally, the last nail in the Indian separation story is the simple fact that settling Mormons had good relations with the Utes and there were no recorded Indian massacres, just a massacre staged by Mormons - the Mountain Meadows Massacre - against a "white" wagon train with Paiute Indian help in 1857.   Thus the confusions continued to mount.]

Her parents were both natives of Ohio.  Her father, Robert Cannary was motivated in 1860 to move his wife Charlotte, and their six children (of whom Martha Jane was the oldest) a few miles to the northeast to Ravanna, Missouri.  In 1865, he made the decision to leave Missouri.

Robert and Charlotte packed up their brood and what household goods they could manage for the trail, and they joined a westbound wagon train.  Robert Cannary had selected Virginia City, Montana, as their destination; it was a gold rush burg, established around 1863.  Charlotte Cannary never made it.  As was common in those days, Charlotte died on the trail.  Historically, she is recorded as succumbing to “washtub pneumonia” (a respiratory disease like silicosis, generally attributed to laundresses, women who inhaled airborne soap flakes and other vaporous solvents).

McCormick is dead, so she can no longer press her claim to the Hickok name. Other musicians and singers have used her in their tunes over the years as well. She was at that time at Goose Creek Camp, S.D., where Captain Egan and a small body of men were stationed. In the fall she was directed to Fort Russell where she stayed and prostituted until the following spring (1875).  The troops were then sent into the

Calamity Jane, beyond her routine scouting activities, did perform heroically, and verifiably. One of the men who planned her funeral later claimed since Wild Bill Hickok had “absolutely no use” for Calamity Jane while he was alive, they decided to play a posthumous joke on him by berthing  Jane eternally at his side.  [Hickok was her friend, and he would never have reported such a mean-spirited sentiment.  It was Jane's wish - made clear during her lifetime - that she be buried next to Hickok].

Wild Bill had recently married a younger woman.  Hickok’s time in Deadwood was purely for “entertainment” purposes.  He was attracted to the rough life, and he also enjoyed preening before a crowd wherever he went.  His time was spent gambling and in leisure “sporting” activities.  He and Calamity Jane struck up a friendship as the two braggarts had much to talk about.

 her histrionic tale, either.  Another popular myth is that Jane got the nickname as a result of her warnings to men that to offend her was to “court calamity”.  Also a bald-faced lie – the casual prostitute Jane Cannary would no more have cared about her “virtue” than the men who paid her for sex did.

Deadwood

As well as the people, both men and women, of the Old West who are remembered as outlaws and rogues, heroes and gunslingers, the towns in which these transients lived and died also have become iconic.  Tombstone, Arizona … the list goes on. 

Jane gave birth to a baby girl, on October 28, 1887. Jane glossed over her daughter’s fate, only saying the child was allegedly given up to “foster parents” without explanation.  Although Jane mentioned this baby’s birth in passing in her autobiography, she did not give details nor dwell on how she felt about being a mother, etc.  [The harsh reality is that when her marriage to Clinton Burke broke up in 1895, she abandoned her 8-year-old daughter, Jessie, to a convent for care].

The biggest celebrity in town was a very big name, indeed: Wild Bill Hickok (born James Butler in Illinois in 1837).  Jane had met him on her more recent trek north to Deadwood

The unfortunate truth is Calamity Jane had been branded as diseased, plainly and simply.  There were no heroics involved in her getting the “calamity”, just a young woman’s unfortunate  need to earn a living in a hard land.  Certainly, any deflection from the truth would be easier to live with than being known as a carrier of gonorrhea (and in women the disease does not always make its presence known quickly – the inflammation and general infection may start months after the causative bacteria has been introduced). She rode ahead of her group, making 90 miles to her delivery point in record time.  During the course of this trek, she had to swim the Platte River; she contracted a nearly fatal illness from the constant wet and cold, and she was taken by military ambulance back to Fort Fetterman by General Crook’s order. British men called it the “clap”, a term still used today.  When a man was “clapped” he had gonorrhea.  They also had a wonderfully modernly slangy sounding word for it as well, the “gleet”.

Jane and Clinton left Texas in 1889, and moved to Boulder, Colorado.  Jane took up hostelry again, and in 1891 she and Clinton Burke married.  They lived quietly until 1893.  Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show still toured (it survived until 1916), and Calamity Jane was invited to work it as a horse rider and a trick shooter.   [And to give a sense of scope, Buffalo Bill's show was a monstrous attraction in its day, incorporating trick riders, shoot outs, live Native Americans (on the payroll voluntarily), current Western celebrities, and circus performances.  Anyone buying a ticket to this show got his money's worth - it ran for an incredible action-packed four hours].  She accepted the job in 1893, but she was not cut out for the rigors of the tour’s schedule or its discipline.  Her drinking grew worse.  Buffalo Bill had to fire her.  By this time she was also chronically depressed and her alcohol consumption grew.  It was about this time her marriage to Clinton Burke ended and she left her daughter with St. In 1881 she wandered into Wyoming where she prostituted again in her old haunts. 

her shooting irons, she snatched up a meat cleaver and threatened him. And most of Jane’s contemporaries did not believe

Both claims are without merit.  Brushy Bill Roberts was not Billy the Kid.  Jean McCormick Burkhardt was not the offspring of Calamity Jane and Wild Bill Hickok.  There are no records other than McCormick’s suspect “family bible” to support any connection to either Jane or Wild Bill.  Calamity Jane was working as an Indian Scout for the U.S. She was given a set of military documents to race to another detachment to join Generals Miles, Terry, and Custer at Big Horn River. Army at the time of McCormick’s birth – her boss, and friend, Buffalo Bill would have certainly noticed if Jane was pregnant.  He never mentioned it in any recollection of her; Jane never mentioned it, either, in her pamphlet autobiography (nor did she ever repeat the assertion she had married Hickok).  Her drunken fantasizing created a controversy.

on a few occasions, using models evoking the memory of this lonely, chaotic woman.  The complexity of Calamity Jane is not present in these images but the pop icon and memory certainly is.

In direct contrast to her later rough-looking tomboy appearance, the young Martha Jane was reported as quite attractive, a “pretty, dark-eyed girl”.  This teenage Plains girl would have to do something to provide for herself and her siblings, however.  The tender Martha Jane took up part-time prostitution.  She also worked at waitressing and as a dishwasher.  During the course of her life, she became the house hooker for ranchers at a Fort Laramie hog farm and at the fort.  Although Martha Jane wandered for work, and perhaps would have had no trouble making her way as a full-time prostitute (something she would do part-time for almost the rest of her life when times were tight), she felt a toehold in the regular world was important.  She took other jobs as a cook and as a dance-hall girl.  Finally, her work as an ox-team driver led to her next adventure.

Martha Jane Cannary was born on a farm on May 1, 1852, in Princeton, Missouri (north-central part of the state but a handful of miles from the Iowa border).  The family’s last name is sometimes incorrectly reported as “Canary” or “Canery”. 

“From that time on her life was pretty lively all the time. On June 10, 1876, she publicly humiliated herself when she rented a horse and buggy in Cheyenne. Santa Fe … In that war Generals Custer, Miles, Terry and Crook were all engaged. She financed a ranch west of Miles City, Montana, on the Yellowstone River.  She used one of her buildings as an inn for travelers.   She struck out again in 1883 for California, reaching San Francisco in early 1884 where her work is not certain but probably involved part-time prostitution and hauling freight as a teamster.  From San Francisco, she headed southeast, and after spending some time at Fort Yuma, Arizona, she arrived in El Paso, Texas, in the fall of that year.  She met a native Texan, Clinton Burke (in some sources recorded as “E.M.” Burke) in August 1885.  That year the press caught up to her and documented her new-found domesticity in pictures of her outside her home, and sitting on a kitchen table holding a cigar, allegedly “cooking breakfast”.  These photos, while interesting documents of her, are clearly staged for public consumption – her cigar is unlit.

The letters Jane wrote to her abandoned daughter were brought to the public in a musical format in the 20th century.  Composer Libby Larsen set some of them to music as homage, and created a musical artwork called Songs From Letters. She regularly featured as a female heroine in many dime

The 24-year-old frontier scrapper had probably found her niche.  In this town of misfits and other social outcasts a filthy woman who habitually wore men’s clothes, prostituted, drank rotgut, chewed tobacco, and smoked cigars, Calamity Jane raised no eyebrows.  She was accepted as yet one more of the town’s colorful characters. Army as a civilian Indian Scout, reporting to General George Crook whose adjutant was a young Buffalo Bill Cody. 

Black Hills of Dakota Territory to protect settlers and miners from the Sioux Indians where they stayed until the winter of 1875, and decamped for Fort Laramie to ride out the season.  In early 1876 she escorted a wagon train to Deadwood, Dakota Territory, a developing rough mining camp. When I joined Custer I donned the uniform of a soldier. Egan on recovering, laughingly said: ‘I name you Calamity Jane, the heroine of the plains.’ I have borne that name up to the present time.”

“Her old nickname was received in 1872 in a peculiar way. It was a bit awkward at first but I soon got to be perfectly at home in men’s clothes. Egan was shot. She quickly found regular employment shuttling supplies to the gold field miners.  She prospected a bit. They got through untouched, but every other man in the gallant company was slaughtered.  When he recovered, Captain Egan laughingly spoke of Miss Canary as ‘Calamity Jane,’ and the name has clung to her ever since…”

novels as early as 1877 (when she was 25). In 1876, her scouting detachment was ordered to the area of the Big Horn River for recon. Abilene … Egan was in command of the Post. When motion pictures developed she was a favored subject in Westerns.  In 1949, the too beautiful Yvonne De Carlo played her in Calamity Jane and Sam Bass.  Most images of Jane have ranged from the romantic to the downright demeaning and silly – Jane’s known antics were taken to comedic extremes (as Doris Day’s “aw shucks” portrayal was in her turn as Calamity Jane in 1953).  However, she had never been faithfully portrayed until HBO brought its epic series Deadwood to television.  The morose, insecure, dirty, depressed, drunken Calamity Jane (who is still a good, caring person at heart) is perhaps the closest thing to the real woman ever served up by Hollywood. 

Fly Away

when she elected to stay.  Hickok lived the life of a celebrity, and his checkered past was writ large on the Western landscape.  He had been a constable, a Union scout and spy in the Civil War, a U.S. Her cause of death was reportedly pneumonia (another source records “inflammation of the bowels”).  Among her belongings was a packet of letters (unsent) she had written to her daughter she had abandoned.  The letters are of the “dear diary” sort of conversational things in keeping with Jane’s sense of loss for never having the family she may have wanted.

 

Calamity Jane was buried at Mount Moriah Cemetery in South Dakota next to Wild Bill Hickok. jurisdiction in Yankton, South Dakota.  Convicted this time, he was hanged on March 1, 1877.

Cody took charge of Jane’s activities.  Her work for the Army generally involved reporting on local Indian activities and ferreting out raiders and potential troublemakers.  This was the period just before the Native American victory at Little Big Horn over the incompetently arrogant General George Armstrong Custer.

The more likely scene of Charlotte’s demise must have been Blackfoot, Idaho.  Leaving Missouri, via the Oregon Trail (the best northwest passage of the day) the family would have traveled through Wyoming (a

In the Victorian American West this disease was sometimes called the “calamity”.

  

The Calamity Jane myth begins with this nickname, and for many it embodies everything tragically heroic about the woman. One day Captain Egan was surrounded by a large band. Mary’s Convent in Sturgis. The Indians were giving a lot of trouble, and there was much fighting. [To this day, some poker players call any combination of this pairing "The Dead Man's Hand" after Hickok's hand.  They are wrong.  Hickok was holding the black aces and the black eights - only that combination can properly be called "The Dead Man's Hand".]

Perhaps no other woman embodied the archetype of the wild Western woman better than Calamity Jane. 

Jane was a celebrity, and Deadwood welcomed her back with open arms.  Some business men looking to capitalize on her notoriety suggested she put herself under their management as a circuit lecturer.  They presumed many women in the East would wish to hear from Calamity Jane “the Woman Scout who was made so famous through her daring career in the West and Black Hill countries.” A business agent arrived in Deadwood and booked her for a lecture in Minneapolis at its Palace Museum.  She gave her maiden lecture in what promised to be a very lucrative career on January 20, 1896.  Calamity Jane, however, couldn’t keep away from the bottle, and it seems as if she never traveled any farther than Minneapolis on her lecture tour.   She shocked her bosses by advising them she had made a vow to “never go to bed with a nickel in her pocket or sober”.  

The Victorian British had a couple of names for the common sexually transmitted disease, gonorrhea.  Though not fatal usually, untreated it causes urinary tract problems, blindness, and most importantly, sterility in women.

The Ingalls’ family experience, however, no matter how precarious or grueling it may seem to modern minds was not unique.  In fact, it was very common.  And, as Charles Ingalls had done, a daydreaming gold-feverish Missouri farmer would likewise uproot his family.  The two frontier fathers never met, but in the process of roaming, much like Charles Ingalls, Robert Cannary inadvertently created a celebrity from one of his children. 

A Calamity Is Born

Jane, between her scouting missions, still prostituted.  She was already starting to look as frontier hardened as any man, but for the frontier man in need she was a good sport.  She adopted the gear of male garb almost exclusively – such wear would have been infinitely more practical than the typical woman’s clothing of her day – corsets, voluminous skirts, etc.  

Jane, like many of the roughnecks of the West, was fiercely loyal to her friends and was reported as extremely compassionate.  During a small pox outbreak she worked as a nurse in the local pesthouse, a filthy log cabin given over for quarantine.  The local doctor remarked upon her particular concern over the afflicted children.  She finally had enough of Deadwood, however.  Or perhaps Deadwood had enough of her – Calamity Jane struck out in 1880 for greener pastures.  She was 28 years old.

 

With nowhere clear in mind to go, she returned to her spiritual home, Deadwood.  The brothel baroness, Madame Dora DuFran, was still doing brisk business when Jane returned.  Dora gave Jane a job as a laundress and cook in one of her brothels in Belle Fourche, a few miles north of Deadwood.  She earned her keep in this way, but continued drinking heavily.  No one looked for her as a sexual partner – she was wrung out and haggard. 

Jane’s activities, however, were more pedestrian and of a reconnaissance nature and not nearly as heroic as she reported in an autobiography in 1896 (wildly embellished, self-aggrandizing, and erroneous in dates and places, there is little truth in it):

After this convalescence, she rode  back to Fort Laramie, her general base of operations (and the hog farm where she casually prostituted).  In July 1876, striking out again as a scout for a wagon train, she headed north, where she first met Wild Bill Hickok.

In July 1903, she took off for Terry, South Dakota.  She checked into the Calloway Hotel and later was reported drinking heavily on board a train.  She was ill on board, and the train’s conductor escorted her off, and to a cabin where she died soon after on August 1, 1903. Marshal, a sheriff, a town marshal, a renowned Indian fighter, and a crack shot. Wanderlust had returned; she traveled throughout the Plains States and the Rocky Mountain area seemingly with no goal in mind.  Jane remarked of the day when she returned to perhaps the only place she ever considered home: “…arriving in Deadwood October 9th, 1895, after an absence of seventeen years.”

Indian scout, prostitute, teamster – Calamity Jane sampled life to the fullest.  Her death at age 51 was premature, even for the shortened life expectancies of the late 19th century.  Her rough livin’, tough lovin’, and hard drinkin’ left her prematurely worn down, and she died an alcoholic. 

It was only after the death of Custer (in 1876) that Jane started claiming she served under him in Fort Russell and during the Arizona Indian Campaigns.  She spread this rumor effectively.  However, there are no records supporting Custer as ever having been assigned to Fort Russell.  Furthermore, she did not take any active role in the Arizona Indian Campaigns; her job assignment concerned the Plains Indians only.

Such a tale was typical of Calamity Jane.  The biggest controversy surrounded her relationship with Wild Bill Hickok.  Jane was obsessed with him, and she truly did love him as a friend and perhaps she would have wanted something more.  She was a young woman in her mid twenties, and Hickok was just as big a character as she was.  It is entirely possible Hickok may have had sex with her during one of her turns at Madam DuFran’s brothel, but other than being fast friends, there is absolutely no historical record of their having a close and intimate, long-term relationship.

. I was riding in advance and on hearing the firing turned in my saddle and saw the Captain reeling in his saddle as though about to fall. .

[Mature Content]

Buffalo Bill reported, although favorably, somewhat differently on her role:

Jane later claimed she rode for the Pony Express in the Deadwood area during this time.  This is but one of her many lies – the Pony Express had ceased operation in 1861 when Jane was about 9 years old.  Although she might have carried an occasional contemporary express or freight pouch as a favor, she never rode with the Express.  It only hired men.   

She was well-known in the southern strip of the Wyoming Territory as a tough girl, and in 1874 she found work with the U.S. When on returning to the Post we were ambushed about a mile and a half from our destination. When fired upon Capt. This campaign lasted until fall of 1873. Department of Public Welfare, perhaps to relieve themselves of her agitation, gave her the pension based upon the flimsiest of “evidence”.  McCormick presented a family bible in which the Hickok-Cannary “marriage” was recorded as having been done in a place called Benson’s Landing in Montana.  The date for this event was the date Calamity Jane had given as her daughter’s date of birth, September 25, 1873.  Thus, a daughter was born and a marriage solemnized on the same day allegedly.  This “proof” was witnessed in this bible by two reverends  and other witnesses.  It is certainly a forgery, but rather than harangue over a few dollars, the U.S. Capt. But Calamity Jane she was after 1872 and Calamity Jane she would be until her death.  The name fit her well – tragedy and coincidental misfortune seemed to follow her like a cloud of doom.  Her parents were dead, she was the caregiver for a family of five by 16, and she prostituted and rode the range as an Indian scout.  Traveling was in her blood, as was the excitement of a frontier life. 

Virginia City, Montana, was a town in the midst of a gold rush (since about 1862).  It was founded in 1863; in 1864 it became the first town in Montana to incorporate.  Robert, however, did not stay long in the gold fields.  He struck out soon after arriving, headed south, and settled in Salt Lake City, Utah, by the summer of that same year.  He started a homestead with 40 acres of farmland that he immediately prepped for planting.  The family, missing a mother, was further devastated; only a year after arriving in Salt Lake City, Robert died in 1867.  His cause of death is unknown. 

“Joined General Custer as a scout at Fort Russell, Wyoming, in 1870, and started for Arizona for the Indian Campaign.  Up to this time I had always worn the costume of my sex. His real life adventures were heady enough, but Wild Bill was also a shameless self-promoter.  Like Calamity Jane he exaggerated his exploits and was sufficiently charismatic that he became the subject of many dime novels of the day.  Furthermore, he was the star attraction of a traveling vaudeville and western extravaganza from 1872 to 1874. 

Western Wear Tear

Women of the Old American West had no choice but to toughen up or die.  Survival hinged upon many things: maintaining peaceable relations with the Native Americans, handling the

teamster, working most of 1879 driving wagon train leads to Fort Pierre from Rapid City. And adding a surreal element to her longevity she has featured in several computer action games.

In furtherance of her own fantasy, Jane claimed she went after Jack McCall personally after learning of Hickok’s death.  She traced him to a local butcher shop and rather than run home for

during her family’s westward trek that had cost her both parents and had led to her wanderings to support her siblings) had learned to ride, hunt, and shoot so well she was considered an expert frontier range rider at the ripe old age of 20. 

Injuns

Many of the exaggerations, including the genesis of her sobriquet “Calamity Jane”, began in about 1872 when, as an ox-team driver, she stumbled upon another career opportunity.  Martha Jane (

In Britain, the Victorian’s use of euphemisms for many words and phrases most often alluded to the real meaning of the speaker’s intent.  The average Victorian listener ably inferred what was put forth.  For the Victorian British man, any woman who had “gone gay” was a woman who had turned into a prostitute.  Syphilis, a debilitating killer causing degenerative brain damage, could be a scourge if left untreated.  No one wanted to claim it, so it was often referred to as “The French Pox” by the British, “The Italian’s Disease” or “Spanish Flu” by the French, and so on.  Again, the listener knew it was “syphilis”. To explain its sense of desolation and despair: it got its name from a deadfall, a loose pile of dead, fallen trees in a nearby gulch.  The has-beens, the never-weres, the dreamers, the freed slave, the Chinese laborer all made their homes in this little freezing-cold gold rush town in the badlands. 

“…I returned to Fort Sanders, Wyoming, remained there until spring of 1872, when we were ordered out to the Muscle Shell or Nursey Pursey Indian outbreak. In the midst of the fighting, it is said, the woman rode into the very center of the trouble, dismounted, lifted the captain in front of her on her saddle, and dashed out. She had unlimited nerve and entered into the work with enthusiasm, doing good service on a number of occasions.  Though she did not do a man’s share of the heavy work, she has gone in places where old frontiersmen were unwilling to trust themselves, and her courage and good-fellowship made her popular with every man in the command.”

Jane however, misrepresented her relationship with Hickok to the point of ridiculous claims upon his death.  Wild Bill was playing poker in a local saloon on August 2, 1876 (just a couple of months after his arrival in town).  Contrary to his normal behavior, he sat with his back to the saloon’s door, a clear indicator he expected no trouble.  A roughneck named Jack McCall gunned Hickok down where he sat.   McCall’s beef with Hickok resulted from McCall’s claim Hickok had killed McCall’s brother when Wild Bill was a marshal in Abilene (1871).  Hickok held a poker hand consisting of a pair of aces and a pair of eights. Her descendants, however, continue to champion her assertion – the money to be made cannot be discounted if one can prove one is a descendant of the Hickok/Cannary line.  [This is the same level of sensationalist drum-beating that the current relatives of the Billy The Kid pretender, Brushy Bill Roberts, are doing to profit from the assertion that The Kid was not gunned down, but faked his own death, and lived out the rest of his life as Roberts]. 

But for sheer undying myth, legend, grime, squalor, lawlessness, and human misery no town of the Old West can beat Deadwood, Dakota Territory, as the last place of refuge for the hopeless and the broken. And her notoriety preceded her as well: the local newspaper, the Black Hills Pioneer reported “Calamity Jane has arrived.”   

Buffalo Bill did not meet Jane until 1874; it is clear he was  relaying this story from another party, and there is no doubt Jane herself fed it to him. Capt. We were ordered out to quell an uprising of the Indians, and were out for several days, had numerous skirmishes during which six of the soldiers were killed and several severely wounded. Dodge City, Kansas … They were fighting desperately for their lives, but were being steadily, but surely slaughtered. Laredo … Was in Arizona up to the winter of 1871 and during that time I had a great many adventures with the Indians, for as a scout I had a great many dangerous missions to perform and while I was in many close places always succeeded in getting away safely for by this time I was considered the most reckless and daring rider and one of the best shots in the western country.”

In the spring of 1874 she was ordered to Fort Custer. Her intent was to take a leisurely ride for pleasure to Fort Russell, only about a mile or so from Cheyenne.  She was so drunk, however, that she bypassed her destination and kept going until she arrived in a stupor in Fort Laramie about 90 miles away. 

Robert buried Charlotte Cannary in Blackfoot, leaving the widower  with a feisty early teenage daughter – though dutiful – and five other children to tend.  He continued his trek northward.  Five months after leaving Missouri, the Cannary family of prospectors arrived in Virginia City in the late spring of 1866.

Jane Lives

During Calamity Jane’s life she was glamorized and fictionalized in many pieces of pulp literature. It was during this campaign that I was christened Calamity Jane. . I turned my horse and galloped back with all haste to his side and got there in time to catch him as he was falling. Frontiersman Charlie Utter and his brother Steve led a wagon train to the mining camp filled with what they thought was necessary to profit from the gold fields: dry goods, gamblers, and prostitutes.  The women were the most valuable commodity they transported; within short order one of them, a brothel Madam named Dora DuFran, ran what became the most profitable whore house in Deadwood.  Her “cross-town rival”, another Madam name Molly Johnson, however, came in at a very close second. 

High Plains Drifter

Jane ambled aimlessly.  She returned to scouting Indians briefly in 1877.  She spent the entire year of 1878 prospecting in the Rapid City, South Dakota, area.  She then took a job as a

As elsewhere in the Western world, the Victorian sense of euphemism was alive and well in the frontier American West.  Skirting around an issue was as “direct” as many people got to straightforward speech.  Nothing turned faces redder or more quickly than any open talk of sex; certainly one did not discuss such matters in the mixed company of women.

Jane moped around Deadwood drunk in public often.  After Hickok was killed she was inconsolable – he probably was her truest friend.  She started a grieving, drunken rumor that she and Hickok had been married in 1870.  She said she had given birth to a baby girl (that she named “Jane”) on September 25, 1873. She claimed she had put the baby up for adoption.  None of this is true.  She did not meet Hickok until early 1876, nor could Hickok have legally married his new wife, Agnes Lake Thatcher, that year (he would have been guilty of bigamy).  Jane simply wanted to believe.

Dirty, foul, and dangerous — it’s “Deadwood”

Martha Jane (as a female and a minor) could not hold onto the Utah property Robert had claimed.  As the head of the family, the sixteen-year old loaded up her three younger sisters and two brothers, and she made her way to Fort Bridger in the Wyoming Territory in May 1868.  She had a rudimentary plan to keep the family together, but it required being closer to civilization.  From Fort Bridger, the orphaned group traveled by train to Piedmont, Wyoming.  Jane found a job working on a gang building a section of railroad for a Union Pacific line running through Piedmont.

But the people who set out on that path of migration knew life would be hard. 

Charles Ingalls, a daydreaming Wisconsin farmer, relished the planned struggles.  He gave up his sedate life of bucolic steadiness for the open expanses of the Great Plains.  He dragged his family of wife and daughters with him.  They lived in a period of a very few short years in a wagon, a lean-to, tents, a shack, a dugout under a creek hillock, a cabin on Indian lands (from which they were ejected by the U.S

Boyd’s Borgata gets first New Jersey online gaming permit

PokerStars has said its deal with Resorts is pending approval by the New Jersey regulators.

“This is a big step towards the opening of the regulated market for online gaming in New Jersey next month,” said a spokesman for Bwin.Party.

The gaming enforcement division has said Internet gambling, limited to the 12 hotel-casinos and their partners, will begin in New Jersey on November 26, after a trial period to make sure things work properly.

(Reporting By Susan Zeidler. Editing by Andre Grenon and Steve Orlofsky)

New Jersey last February became the third state after Nevada and Delaware to legalize online gambling, but the casino industry views New Jersey as the most lucrative opportunity based on size and the fact its law encompasses many forms of gambling, while Nevada’s regulations, by contrast, allows online poker only.

The sites were closed to U.S. New Jersey is aggressively moving forward,” said Rip Gerber, founder and CEO of Locaid, which helps companies locate their customers, employees and assets through location technologies.

LOS ANGELES (Reuters) – Borgata Hotel Casino Spa, owned by Boyd Gaming Corp’s and MGM Resorts, said it received the first Internet gaming permit ever in New Jersey from the state’s Division of Gaming Enforcement.

The Borgata is partnering with Bwin.party Digital Entertainment Plc for its online gambling offering. The state’s other casinos will also partner with online gaming companies.

Resorts Casino Hotel has joined with PokerStars, which had tried to buy the Atlantic Club Casino Hotel earlier this year before the deal fell apart.

Off-shore poker websites such as PokerStars were the forces behind the last online poker boom, starting around 2003. But that all changed on April 15, 2011, which is known in the industry as “Black Friday,” when the U.S. online players, and now companies such as PokerStars are trying re-enter the market through potential partnerships in the United States.

Analysts estimate that Nevada’s online gambling market will yield $50 million to $250 million in annual revenue, while New Jersey’s will generate $500 million to $1 billion yearly.

Other operators that applied to offer online gaming include Caesars Entertainment; Donald Trump’s Trump Entertainment Resorts; the Tropicana Casino and Resort, sold in a bankruptcy sale to a group of creditors led by Carl Icahn in 2009; and The Golden Nugget, owned by Landry’s Inc.

Nevada was the first to go live with online gambling in April when Station Casinos launched the first offering known as UltimatePoker.com. Department of Justice indicted the founders of several sites on charges of bank fraud, money laundering and illegal gambling offenses.. Casino industry, the American Gaming Association, asked New Jersey regulators in March to reject a petition by PokerStars for interim authorization to buy the Atlantic Club, a small casino in Atlantic City.

Gamblers would have to be physically in New Jersey to play.

“We’re location-enabling Boyd and other applicants there. New Jersey is expected to go live in late November with Internet gaming.

Borgata, one of the 12 hotel-casinos in New Jersey’s Atlantic City, said it had worked closely with the division throughout the process. A spokeswoman for the division confirmed it was the first Internet gaming permit to be issued by the state.

The trade group for the U.S

30th Birthday – 7 Party Themes That Create Lasting Memories

Casino Party theme

To learn more birthday party themes, visit www.birthdaypartythemes101.com

Being 30 is a milestone by itself. If kids are going to be joining in, then you have to think of wholesome 30th birthday party themes.

Here is a list of suggested 30th birthday party themes that would surely create lasting memories:

Costume parties are always a big hit so why not try it on your 30th year? You could dress up as workers and professionals (fireman, doctor, nurse, teacher, etcetera).

3. 30th Birthday Costume Party theme. For instance, think if this will be an all-adult party. Grass skirts and floral shorts are musts. 30th Birthday Mardi Gras Party theme

You could use the cultural themes that are unique in each country. 30th Birthday Luau Party theme

Article Directory: http://www.articledashboard.com

Whatever you decide to do on your 30th birthday party, this theme focuses on the color that you need to put in. International Themes for your 30th Birthday Party

By: Tim Lee

Where there’s luau, there’s something Hawaiian. There are certain aspects that need cautious deliberation before you get to say yes. When you are 30, then you spent some of your childhood years during the 80′s.

7. How about Chinese?

As a 30-year old, you have every right to gamble! And yes, you could even use this as your 30th birthday party theme. remember to put bright and vibrant colors. Colorful 30th Birthday Party theme

6. As the theme suggests, everything that’s related to Mardi Gras is present. You could hold baccarat, roulette, poker, and other casino games right at your party!

5. Plus you could utilize a pool and celebrate the day away with your guests.

2. Beads, beads, and more beads! Plus lots of colorful streamers.

1. Why not go retro and try the 80′s Era birthday party theme? You could decorate the halls with 45′s and you could dress up as Madonna or Tiffany!

4. Sample themes are Great Britain theme (where you could dress as nobles and royalties), France theme, Australian theme, and many more

SportsBet Commercial: Live Racing

However, there is something awkward happening on a screen of a smartphone. Once they are on top – wonderful sites open and they gather to take a selfie with that breathtaking panoramic view from above. Apparently there are more important things than selfies.

SportsBet – the Australian betting brand – has released this funny video spot recently.

Watch the video and have a good laugh.

Credits

Client: SportsBet.

Tags: Australian commercial, funny commercial, SportsBet

SportsBet Commercial: Live Racing

The commercial features a bunch of men climbing the glorious mountains in Australia

Behind The Scene of Royal Vegas Online Casino Technology – Montreal Social Media

That is just how the technology behind the online casino works.

The great shift from land based casino to online casino, gave rise to a number of question on how safe online gambling is. Royal Vegas Online Casino take the liberty to enlighten it player on the promotional offers, bonuses, benefits, rewards, and the different game you can find in here. After conforming that, it is important to know how this technology of online casino works so that one can be alert when registering with any online casino. First and foremost, it is important to understand that online casino games are legal under most law territorial jurisdiction in the USA, but to be on the safe side one should check under their jurisdiction if online gambling is legal. To be able to play online casino in your living room or bedroom has been made possible by companies building online casino games and mobile games and apps which are software’s for playing games and very compatible to your mobile devices, computer or laptop.. Then you get to access an authenticated version of the online gaming apps on your computer and you can now access our all the casino games at the comfort of your living room or bedroom. It also take the liberty to inform it player on the best way to become a good gambler, how gage if you working wing with a legalized online casino, how to play safe on the online games, and to protect, guide children and under age teenagers from getting involved in online gambling. The online gambling has become one of the most unique ways of having entertainment anytime you want, anywhere you all, and amazing you get a chance to be rewarded for enjoying you favorite game. They prefer they old fashion, which is still okay since they get to visit the land-based casinos once a while and enjoy the games but miss out a lot in terms of efficiency, convenience and flexibility in playing time, which the online world has to offer.

This is why this review on the technology behind the online casinos is vital to the players and potential casino game lover. It has also found it necessary to enlighten its player on the basic of online gaming by informing the player of the technology behind the online casinos.

All they do is make software that creates a very attractive interface with brilliant designs and clarity to make the game you find on a slot machine in a land base casino very responsive on your computer or mobile phone. Then we as the Royal Vegas Casino we purchase this amazing software’s and link it up with the variety of game room that we offer at our casino and all you need to do is register an account with us.

Welcome to Royal Vegas online casino here all your favorite game come alive at our comfort and convinces. This question still hold back million of casino game lovers out there who are afraid of the transition due to the fact that they don’t understand how exactly the online casino work. The Royal Vegas online casino is now the most popular way of staying in touch with your most favorites, blackjack, poker, bingo, lottery and more slot games or sports betting on your best winning team. It gets no better than that. This is because registration required one to use his or her legal identity and financial detail and even deposit cash in the account

Learn To Bet On Online Sportsbooks In Five Easy Ways!

Check if its customer service is reliable so that you can get an assurance of great service. If you are knowledgeable of the teams in matches that you want to bet on, you can feel confident even if they are playign against tough oponnent sides.

ONE: Look for a reliable online sportsbook. Your vast knowledge on your favourite teams or players can greatly help you in making the right choice for betting on matches. Do not forget to take down important notes when placing bets. Keep in mind that different sports may have different sets of bets and rules, so you have to be aware on what to do in order for you to make the right choices. In that way, you can further enjoy sports betting without having to worry about your money.

TWO: Choose your favourite sports matches. It pays to land on one that gives you great returns on your bets and takes care of your money and convenience at the same time.

Author’s Bio: 

FOUR: Understand the rules well. You can use those notes as references when you make bets in the future. Online sportsbooks can provide you with the best sports bet line details on all your favourite sports at any time of the day. Choose one that has clear contents, particularly its rules and FAQs. The following are five easy ways that you should follow when betting on online sportsbooks:

Tomas Chan is a sportsbooks addict and online casino enthusiasts. Make it a habit to refer to the online sportsbooks’ rules and FAQs if you are having difficulties understanding some things when betting. Check out your online sportsbook and see if it updates its betting details. Klause is a graduate of Bachelor of Science in Computer Science wherein he is taking Master’s Degree in Information Technology. He really enjoys sports and enjoys life.

THREE: Exercise proper money management. Klause enjoys playing basketball, watching Soccer League, like EPL, Laliga, UEFA, FIFa, Olympics and other sports. To maintain a great sports betting experience, you must research on practical ways to manage your money for bets. If you have more questions that you want to ask, do not hesitate to contact your online sportsbook’s customer service. Klause live independent and waiting for the time to live with her fiancée. Learn to distribute your money across smaller bets when betting on several odds. Search for reviews on the Internet for you to know what other people think of various online sportsbooks. Always make it a point to check the latest updates on matches which you have betted on. Control your budget if you are already incurring successive losses.

Your rating: None

Betting on online sportsbooks is surely a great way to enjoy sports with the use of your Internet-enabled computer or device. Identify the possible reasons why you are winning and losing so that you can create consistent betting habits and techniques that you can proudly call “tried and tested”.

Average:

. In that way, you can directly talk to a customer service representative who is always ready to answer all your queries.

FIVE: Study your bets. Winning or losing is normal when betting in online sportsbooks. He manage the fan page of 12bet sportsbook and 12bet casino. What he is icharged of is to give updates, on every hit matches, preview, tips and guide for the sportsbook player and onlince casino players. Sometimes he goes for car racing and motor crossing. For example, when you bet on soccer matches, go for those that involve your favourite clubs so that you can use your insights well when betting

Column: FIFA presidency no laughing matter as would-be candidate becomes frontman for gambling

After Thursday’s passing of the entry deadline, “Team Ginola” should fade away.

“It just makes like a mockery of football.”

“I’m here today to talk about love” were the Frenchman’s seductive opening words at his campaign launch in London this month.

And how about this blurb from Sky Bet, title sponsor since 2013 of England’s three divisions below the Premier League. That much was clear from the Paddy Power branding.

Asking your kids to make tea during half-time breaks won’t shield them from the bombardment, not with gambling ads flashing throughout matches on pitch-side light-boards. There’s nothing funny about the gambling industry’s latest wheeze to sink its teeth even deeper into football and its fans.

But gambling advertising wasn’t as in-your-face as now. This was about making a splash. Tuning in for results of football betting pools, which offered big jackpots for small stakes, was a Saturday afternoon ritual for many 20th Century English families.. “It’s great for Paddy Power. 10 will pit two Asian online bookmakers against each other. What ever happened to sport for sport’s sake, for the buzz of competition, not a bet? How quaint. So silky as a player for Newcastle and Tottenham; so ridiculous now with his car-crash campaign for the FIFA presidency.

Imagine, for a moment, a Paddy Power-financed FIFA president.

___

All this in a sport grappling with the increasing danger of gambling-related match-fixing and with ample examples of gambling-addicted players who frittered away their wealth.

One of those is Kevin Twaddle, a former player for Motherwell and other Scottish clubs who told his story in the biography, “Life On The Line: How to Lose a Million and So Much More.” He no longer gambles and has delivered talks to other players about the risks.

That is the message that football, more than most other sports, is mainlining into our homes, helped by names like Ginola and teams lending their cachet, stadiums, jerseys and players to the industry that had cash to splash when the 2008 financial crisis hobbled other sponsors.

PARIS –  Don’t laugh. But the mere thought of the gambling industry even attempting to place a stooge at the very top of football makes the prospect of another Blatter term seem perhaps not quite so bad.

“It’s an absolute disgrace,” he said in a phone interview. The increase was three-fold for children aged 4-15.

Ginola has zero chance of unseating Sepp Blatter. Villa’s shirt sponsor is dafabet, a name that works better in Chinese, where “dafa” means “big wealth.” Stoke and Burnley players are billboards for Bet365 and Fun88 (another name that plays on the Chinese word to get rich).

Twaddle takes a very dim view of Ginola’s Paddy Power-backed grab for FIFA.

But that’s not the point here. FIFA’s election and ethics rules will almost certainly keep him off the May ballot. In the UK, which liberalized gambling advertising in 2007, adults’ exposure to gambling commercials on television soared five-fold in eight years to 2012, regulator Ofcom found. That was before online bookmakers offered odds on anything and everything, from match results and goals scored to which team will win the coin toss or take the first corner, and before their relentless advertising.

Sports and gambling have, of course, long gone together, feeding off each other’s success and growth. Bet some more.

And that isn’t funny at all.

Sport “matters more when there’s money on it,” it says. It won’t happen; FIFA’s ethics rules should see to that. Hull against Aston Villa on Feb. But I mean you’re talking about one of the biggest, powerfulest jobs in football and all you’re getting to hear about is Paddy Power.”

Bet. It reads like a plug for Fifty Shades of Grey.

John Leicester is an international sports columnist for The Associated Press. “There’s more passion, more pleasure and more pain.”

Whoa. Bet again. Write to him at jleicester@ap.org or follow him at http://twitter.com/johnleicester

“It’s eyeballs we’re after,” 12Bet executive Rory Anderson, quoted in the Daily Mail, said when the online bookmaker became the name on Hull City’s shirt for this Premier League season.

But the targets were our wallets and spending habits, not our hearts. In pocketing 250,000 pounds (335,000 euros; US$375,000) from bookmaker Paddy Power for this stunt, Ginola became the latest Trojan horse in the gambling and gaming industry’s creeping and creepy embrace of football.

We’re talking here about David Ginola

Sports Betting: Five easy steps to place your first horse racing bet – Las Vegas Sports Betting

Then the type of bet. There are also a number of ‘exotic’ bets that are beyond the scope of this article. But for now, just sit back and enjoy the race. Putting it all together – “Santa Anita, race three, two dollars to win on horse five”. As the race approaches, watch the simulcast screens and check your selections on the track’s ‘tote board’ for the latest odds, payouts and to ensure that your horse (or horses) haven’t been ‘scratched’ (withdrawn from the race).

4. Most major casino ‘books’ offer horse betting and simulcast the major domestic thoroughbred and harness tracks. All of the information you gave the ticket writer must appear on your ticket exactly as you announced it – track, race, horse, type of bet and amount. Find a race and sports book that offers simulcasting and parimutuel betting.

1. Go to the ticket writer and announce the name of the track you wish to bet, for example “Santa Anita”. This can be a simple bet such as ‘win’ – a wager that your horse will finish first; ‘place’ – a wager that your horse will finish either first or second; or ‘show’ – a wager that your horse will finish first, second or third. Racing forms such as the Daily Racing Form and printed track programs are usually available at the ticket counter free or at a reduced charge.

3. Find a race and sports book that offers simulcasting and parimutuel betting. Placing your bet MUST be completed before the last horse enters the starting gate.

5. If you find an error you must tell the writer at this time in order for him/her to void that ticket and issue a correct one.

Placing your bet is the easy part, selecting which horse to bet – that’s the hard part. Watch for future articles on exotic wagering and race horse handicapping. In most race and sports books, you can enjoy the races AND your favorite sporting events on the big screens.. Once you have announced the track, race and type of bet, tell the writer which horse you have selected by number and the amount of your bet. Check your ticket for accuracy. Study your racing form, program and tip sheets and make your selections. Some also offer quarter-horse and greyhound wagering.

2. Then the number of the race you wish to bet, for example “race number three”.

1

Disadvantages Of Online Games Addiction

While those who make the games may argue that they are just games and they should be taken in that way, we can see that the video games are mostly played by kids. It was a real waste of time and effort. It is proven that those addicted to playing games tend to have an irritable nature sometimes, as a result of the negative consequences of lost games.

When I started thinking about working from home and making an income online, I also tried some sites that have some good games that entertain you.I didn’t invest any cash to play games, but I lost my hard earned points for playing games.

If you are into gambling and invest money to play casino games and other online games, it is much more clear that the main disadvantage is the amount of money that is already lost and the amount of money that may be lost in your near future. While you may gain some good money when you gamble and play, the serious addiction will most probably lead to negative situations both financially and socially.

There are far more negative consequences and disadvantages if you are addicted to playing games, whether they are free online games, or the casino games that need money for gambling, or the video games that you purchase and play at the comfort of your home.

If you are into video games, other than the negative effect of spending hours in front of the games, there is also the problem of getting involved in violent games, which may not be good. This can bring debts which you may not be able to pay back and it has the potential to bring negative situations to your life. Playing games is supposed to be fun and bring relaxation to our mind and life, so I think we should not let them take control of our lives.

I have written this hub based on my personal experience with playing online games and the negative consequences I had experienced. But the momentary temptation in me to play the games, easily wasted the points in few minutes of time, that I earned over time. It may even affect your behaviour and result in other situations which can also affect your social life. As parents, I think we have the responsibility to make sure our kids are not engaging too much in violent video games, which can affect them in a negative way.. So you can see how it was a big waste of time and effort.

While staying away from the games may not be an option, I think having control over our time and the money that is spent over the games is very much essential. As you can understand, the hard earned points had the potential to earn me some money. If you want to share anymore disadvantages with regards to playing games, feel free to share them in the comment section!

The serious addiction to games can affect your financial security, relationships and also social life

See what $27 million gets you at The Baccarat Hotel

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